Mostly referred to as server-side development, back-end development involves extensive creation and maintenance of databases, APIs, logic, and servers. It is the server-side of a website and takes care of all entities that transmit between the database and the browser. Backend is the functionality of the software that works behind the scenes to execute tasks and actions on the site and is not visible to the end-user.
The 2 most indispensable elements of any application or web development are the frontend and backend. Both of these terms are complementary to each other, but yet quite different from each other. For the website to be performant and efficient, the connection and operations from front to backend must be steady and swift.
● Front End: All the elements of an application or software that the end-user interacts with, is the frontend part of it. It is the user interface that includes frontend elements like interface design, interface functions, graphics, page layout, audio/video elements, text, input fields, dialog boxes, themes, user preferences, customizations, user flow, buttons, links, toolbars, etc.
● Back End: It is that component of the software that cannot be seen or interacted with by users. User connection is managed and the web is connected to a database, using backend code. For apps to render the server-side, back-end development is required. It also includes stints like writing APIs, building libraries, maintaining system components without user interfaces.
|Skillsets||Database, Server, API||Front end languages and frameworks|
|Most popular tools||MySQL, PHP||jQuery, HTML5|
|Service offered||BaaS (Back-end as a service) can be offered as an independent service||Can’t be offered independently|
|Goals||Data storage, operating logical functions, scalable infrastructure||High responsiveness, and great interface, visually attractive.|
1 . PHP
Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is a 25 years old, server-side language, and possesses some exceptional advantages like simple to follow and learn, open-source (hence, free), versatile, fast, secure, well connected with databases, and there’s a lot of legacy code. Being a general-purpose scripting language, PHP is a dime a dozen and used by around 80% of all dynamic and interactive websites.
Being one of the fastest-growing major backend languages, Python is mostly used to develop the back end of an application or website. The usage of python for building the backend of websites is continuously growing because of its traits of high code readability, open-source language friendly, ease to use, its vast libraries and frameworks. Python is an ideal backend language as developers can write reliable systems using the continuously working on new versions.
Laravel is a web application, server-side PHP framework coupled with n elegant and expressive syntax and helps build backend essentials like caching, routing, sessions and authentication, etc.
Symfony is a PHP framework having MVC architecture. It is one of the most popular applications and open source frameworks. It is used to develop complex web applications exhibiting high performance.
3. Zend Framework
Having more than 570 million installations, Zend Framework is a combination of professional PHP packages, used to develop web applications and aids using PHP 5.6+, and produces an advanced Model-View-Controller (MVC) implementation.
CodeIgniter is a powerful PHP framework with an easy and elegant toolkit used to build full-featured web applications. It is often used to build dynamic websites using PHP and is based on an MVC pattern, that gives a separate logical view from the presentation view and hence minimal scripting is required in the web page.
CakePHP is a rapid development framework for PHP and is completely open-source. Developers consider it as a foundational structure for building web applications and hence has a monotony in the web development industry. To support diverse applications, it is made up of a set of codes pre-written in the PHP language.
6. Yii Framework
Yii is a fast, secure, and efficient component-based PHP framework designed for creating large-scale web applications rapidly. It is a performant framework that can significantly accelerate the web application development process and enables maximum reusability in web programming.
7. Django (Python)
Django is built by experienced developers and is a high-level Python web framework often used for the rapid development of secure and maintainable websites. It is a collection of Python libs. It helps developers code app without needing to reinvent the wheel and hence takes care of much of the hassle of web development. Django is suitable for both frontend and backend and allows users to quickly and efficiently create a quality Web application.
8. Flask (Python)
Flask is a lightweight web framework that provides tools, libraries, and technologies to build web applications, web pages, blogs, wiki, or web-based calendar applications or commercial websites, etc. Without external libraries and minimalist features, flask gives abundant features.
Based on SQL – Structured Query Language, MySQL is a relational database management system. Data warehousing, logging applications, and e-commerce are some of the various purposes, MySQL is used for. It is RDBMS and an open-source database product.
MongoDB is an open-source NoSQL database management application that extends more accelerated query processing but with a higher load and system necessities. Managing document-oriented information, storing or retrieving information becomes easier with MongoDB as data is stored as JSON-like documents with dynamic schema.
PostgreSQL offers support for different SQL functions foreign keys, subqueries, triggers, and different user-defined types and functions, and hence, considered as an advanced version of SQL. Web, mobile, geospatial, and analytics applications utilize the power of PostgreSQL as their primary data store or data warehouse. PostgreSQL 12 is the latest major version of PostgreSQL.
MariaDB is an open-source RDBMS (relational database management system). For the widely used MySQL database technology, MariaDB is a compatible drop-in replacement, with an intention to stay open-source software under the GNU General Public License and free-of-cost. Developed by the community, MariaDB is a commercially maintained fork of the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS).
Cloud services for data structures and key-valued are supported by an n Amazon Web Services(AWS) database system known as DynamoDB. For scaling internet applications it comes with the perks of in-memory caching, the benefits of auto-scaling, backup, and restore options for users. DynamoDB is probably the best option for businesses relying on AWS services like deployment, maintenance, and integration is simple with their current infrastructure. Automated multi-region replication, continuous backups, built-in security, and data export tools are some of the great features exhibited by DynamoDB. It is a fully managed and serverless NoSQL database built to operate high-performance applications at a large scale.
MSSQL stands for Microsoft Structured Query Language (or Microsoft SQL Server). It is a Microsoft-developed relational database management system (RDBMS) mostly used as enterprise database systems. It offers multiple MSSQL Server editions that enterprises can choose from based on their needs and budgets. For a corporate IT environment, it supports diverse transaction processing, business intelligence, and analytics applications
In order to build scalable and extensible projects, a web development framework known as Model-View-Controller (MVC) is often utilized as an industry standard. In software design, MVC is an architectural pattern commonly used to implement user interfaces, data, and controlling logic. The model, the view, and the controller are the three principal logical components that separate an application under this framework. Different development parameters of an application are supervised by each one of these built components.
CMS and framework both are software programs employed for building applications. Framework is a part of a greater software platform and reusable environment, while CMS is a Content Management System. The fact that differentiates a framework from CMS is that framework is an application that contains a prevailing functionality that can be transformed by additional user-written code depending on the application whereas a CMS is a software that builds and maintain digital content.
The sole purpose of Database servers lies in giving data access for authorized users and storing and managing databases stored on the server. To ensure that the data is centrally accessible by the users and the applications, database servers regularly back up the data kept in a central location. Along with a Database Management System (DBMS), the database storage and memory space support the functioning of these database servers. Users make use of this DBMS to access their digital information via the database server.
|Data||Structured tables||Semi-structure tables|
|Flexibility||Strict schema/td>||Dynamic schema|
|Transactions||ACID||Mostly BASE, few ACID|
|Consistency||Strong||Eventual to strong|
|Availability||Consistency prioritized||Basic availability|
|Scale||Vertically by upgrading hardware||Horizontally by data partitioning|
|Examples||MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and Microsoft SQL Server.||MongoDB, BigTable, Redis, RavenDB Cassandra, HBase, Neo4j, and CouchDB|